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美国NOP认证简介


1. What is NOP? NOP是什么?
The National Organic Program (NOP) is part of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). After several years of discussions between organic market stakeholders, the NOP Final Rule came into force in 2002. The complete standard can be downloaded from www.ams.usda.gov/nop/indexIE.htm (Please be aware that most of the more than 500 pages contained in this document are made up by a summary of comments and discussions. The proper standard starts from page 344!).
国家有机工程是美国农业局的组成部分。经过有机物市场的占有者几年的讨论,其最后的规章制度于2002年生效。这些规章制度的完整标准版可从www.amsosda.gov/nop/indexle.htm下载。(请注意:这个新文件中500多页中的大部分是评论及讨论性的。严格意义上的标准版是从344页开始)

2. Who needs to be NOP certified?为什么需要NOP认证
Any grower or handler, who wants to sell organic products on the US market, must be certified according to NOP by a USDA accredited certifier. Also your suppliers of organic ingredients must be NOP certified. The only exceptions are:
● Smallholders with less than 5,000 USD annual turnover from organic sales, who do sell their products directly to the consumer
● Retailers
● Operations, which handle agricultural products containing less than 70% of organic ingredients, or only identify some organic ingredients on the information panel. Products from these companies cannot be used as organic ingredients in NOP certified processed food.
Operations, which only handle packaged organic food (§ 205.101).
任何(想)打算在美国市场上出售有机产品的生产商和经销商,都必须(根据该国农业局)通过NOP的认证,而且NOP的认证是由美国农业局签订合格的。有机成份供应商也必须由NOP认证
仅有以下几例除外:
● 出售有机产品年营业额少于5000美元的小农户。可以直接将产品卖给消费者。
● 零售商
● 经销有机成分不到70%的农产品公司,或其产品的成份与某些有机成份相似的公司的产品无需作为加工食品的有机物成份通过NOP的认证
仅以经营有机食品包装的公司。

3. Some general issues, which distinguish NOP from the EU Regulation on organic farming, and from other organic standards .NOP与欧盟的有机农产品条例及其它有机物验证标准的主要不同之处:
(1) NOP gives high priority to the organic farm's or company's own responsibility: In an organic management plan (called by NOP "organic production and handling system plan") the operator describes and defines procedures to assure the organic integrity (§ 205.201). As a first step the certifier checks, whether these procedures are compliant with NOP, and whether they are really implemented. CERES has adopted this same approach also for EU and JAS certification. NOP给予自负盈亏的有机物农场或加工有机物农产品的公司极大的优先权:在有机物管理计划(NOP称其为有机产品及经营体制方案)经营者阐述并规定确保有机正题的程序。认证的第一步检查这些程序是否与NOP相符,是否真正可行。CERES对欧盟和日本农业有机法也采取了同样的认证方式。
(2) The term "conversion" or "transition" does not exist in NOP. Farm management prior to organic certification is treated under "Land requirements" (§ 205.202). Land to be certified according to NOP must be managed according to the standard, and must not have received prohibited substances during 3 years before the first organic harvest. Conversion period needs not to be supervised by a certifier (see also our "Brief Information Crops"). NOP中没有“转变”或“过渡”这样的术语。农田管理机制先于有机物认证资格,它是针对“所需土地的条件”而出台的。按NOP规定,要经过认证的土地须按标准经营,而且在第一次有机农产品成熟前的3年(的时间)内不能使用被禁止的物质。转换期不必通过认证人员的监督。(详见我们的“作物简介”)。
(3) NOP is very strict concerning treatment of animal manure (§ 205.203). Manure must be subject to composting at high temperature during at least 2 weeks, during which the material must be turned a minimum of five times. Raw manure may be applied only 4 months before harvest (in case there is a possible contact with the edible part of the plant), or 3 months (if there is no contact risk with the edible part). NOP对动物的粪便处理非常严格――规定其粪便必须在至少2周内堆制成肥料,在这期间所制成的堆肥其功效要小于之前粪便的五倍。在收获作物前4个月(这样以免粪便与有机植物的可食用部位接触)或3个月(如果其没有与食用部分接触的可能),没有经过堆肥的粪便方可使用。
(4) NOP requires "buffer zones" between organic and conventional fields, whenever there is a risk of contact with prohibited substances (pesticides, fertilisers) (§ 205.202). CERES, however, applies this rule also for EU certification (see our "Policy on Buffer Zones"). NOP要求在有机田与常规/普通田之间有些“隔离区“,尽管这可能会接触到被禁止使用物质(如杀虫剂、化肥)的危险(§ 205.202)然而CERES也把这一规定作为欧盟的认证资格之一(详见”隔离区“策略)。
(5) Rules for organic livestock production (§ 205.236 through 205.239) are strict, allowing only organic feed, and restricting purchase of conventional animals. After allopathic veterinary treatments, animals have to undergo the complete conversion period. On the other side, rules for livestock housing and living conditions are much less detailed than, e.g., in the EU Regulation (see also our "Brief Information Animals"). NOP对有机生畜的饲养所作的规定也很严格,只准有机饲养,严禁购买常规动物。经过对抗疗法的兽医治疗后,动物就会完全进入转换期。另一方面,对生畜的圈舍和生活条件的规定却不如欧盟对此规定的详细(详见“动物简介)。
(6) Labelling requirements for multi-ingredient food products are somehow different from the EU Regulation and JAS. On the one hand, there is a "100% organic" category. On the other hand, even on products with less than 70% organic ingredients, reference can be made to "organic" for single ingredients on the information panel (§ 205.300 through 205.305, see below N° 4, and also our "Brief Information Processing"). (商标)对多成份的食用产品的商标要求与欧盟的规则和日本农业标准的要求不尽相同。但一方面,NOP有“100%有机物”类别,另一方面,NOP对即使有机成份少于70%的产品也在信息栏上标清某一成份的有机份额来源。
(7) Use of inputs, additives, aids, and ingredients is regulated by "The National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances", for crop and livestock production, handling and storage (§ 205.600 through 205.606). The general rationale behind the National List is:
Nonsynthetic substances are allowed, unless they are prohibited
Synthetic substances are prohibited, unless they are explicitly allowed.
对作物和牲畜生产、加工处理和贮藏所使用的添加物、添加剂、药品以及各种成分都由“ 国家允许生产资料与禁止物清单”指定。“国家清单”背后所体现的基本原则是:
可使用非合成物,除非被禁止。
不可使用合成物,除非明确规定其可使用。
(8) Special attention has to be drawn to the fact that all inert ingredients have to be qualified as “Inerts of minimal concern” according to the list no.4 of the US-Environmental Protection Agency (see the list under: http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/inerts/inerts_list4.pdf). 根据美国环保局所列表单中的第4条,对惰性成份成为合格的“微量惰性”须多加关注。

4. Labelling requirements标签要求

100%的有机物100% organic

有机物Organic


由有机物组成Made with organic

低于70的有机物成分Less than 70% of organic ingredients

包装过的零售产品(§ 205.303 到 205.305)Packaged retail products (§ 205.303 through 205.305)

仅限农业品的有机成份,添加剂和加工助剂的有机成份。Only organic agri­cultural in­gredi­ents, only organic additives and processing aids

有机物农产品的有机成份不低于95%其它的依照国家所列清单而定Minimum 95% of organic agricultural ingredients; rest only according to Na­tional List;

有机物合成物农产品的有机成份不少于70%的;最多包含3种有机成份的,不使用美国的农产品印章Minimum 70% of organic agricul­tural ingredients; not more than 3 organic ingredients; no use of USDA seal

Reference to organic only in ingredient statement; no use of USDA seal or certi­fier's logo

只能在成分描述中标出有机成分;不能用USDA印章或认证标志

非有机成份不要使用其它的方法或物质,每种有机成份必须经过鉴定,有机成份及其百分比的描述依产品的大小,形状,颜色而定non-organic ingredients without use of excluded methods or substances;

each organic ingredient must be identified; statements about the organic ingredients or its percentages are limited in size, type stile and colour

产品的命名可改用“100%有机物或纯有机物”Product name may be modified with
"100% organic" or "organic"

在产品名没修改的情况下,可在信息栏里写上“有机物制成(的字样)” "Made with organic" may be men­tioned in information panel, with­out modifying the product name

不可以在信息栏里写上“有机物制成(的字样)”"Organic" not men­tioned in information panel

牲畜饲养 (§ 205.306)Livestock feed (§ 205.306)

As above同上

As above同上

不能用于牲畜饲养Impossible for livestock feed

进行装运,存储原料和加工有机产品的非零售集装箱(§ 205.307)Nonretail containers for shipping or storing raw or processed organic products (§ 205.307)

As above同上

As above同上

同上

不能用Impossible

如果可应用,必须显示产品编号Must display a lot number, if applicable

包装零售产品(§ 205.308, 205.309)Non-packaged retail products (§ 205.308, 205.309)

As above同上

As above同上

同上As above

不能用Impossible

被免除一些操作的生产(尤其是小农户, 参见上, § 205.310)Produced by an exempt operation (especially smallholders, see above, § 205.310)

只能被标示为“有机物”,而不能被标示为“已认证的有机物”。不能用USDA印章或认证标志。可以用于自己的多成分产品但不能卖给其他生产商。May only be labelled as "organic", not as "certified organic". No use of USDA seal or certifier's logo. Can be used in own multi-ingredient products, not sold to other processors.


● Beside the information identifying the operator himself and other information required by general labeling regulations the label must contain the certifiers name (“Certified organic by: CERES GmbH”).
● The certifier's logo may not be larger in size than the USDA seal.
● When using the USDA seal, details described in § 205.311 must be respected.
● Use of the USDA seal is voluntary!
● 除了标识经营者身份的信息,商标还必须包含认证机构的名称(如:由CERES GmbH进行的有机认证
认证标识的尺寸不能大于美国设计的农产品印章。
● 使用VSDA印章时,必须注意§ 205.311的详尽描述
● 使用VSDA印章必须是自愿的。

5. Certification procedure认证手续
● After receiving your application, we send you an offer for the cost of certification, together with relevant information about NOP, CERES policies and procedures. Upon acceptance of our offer, you sign a contract and transfer 50% of the quoted amount. 收到你们的正式申请后,我会提供给你们认证的报价以及NOP与CERES的政策与做法的相关信息。接受我们所提出的条件后,你们要签合同并交付50%的报价。
● CERES submits the template for your organic management plan (OMP). If necessary, our staff assists you in working out the OMP. CERES将给你们提供有机管理(计划)方案的模版。如有必要,我们的员工会帮助你们制定有机物管理方案。
● Upon acceptance of the OMP, we schedule an on-site inspection. The CERES inspector verifies, whether the OMP is consistent with on-site observations. It is very important, that the responsible persons are present during this inspection. In some cases, the inspector will take samples (plant tissue, soil, fertilizers etc.) (see our policy "Sampling Frequency"). You will be given a receipt for the samples taken. 接受OMP后,我们将就地列一个检查清单。CERES检查员核查有机物管理方案是否与现场一致。自负盈亏的公司负责人在检查中亲临现场是必要的。在某些情况下检查员会取样品(构成植物的组织、土壤、肥料等)。(详见“采样频率”)你可得到样品抽取的方法。
● As soon as the inspector finishes the inspection report, you get a copy, by e-mail, fax or mail. You will be provided with a copy of sample test results, as soon as they arrive from the laboratory. 检验员完成检查报告后,会通过e-mail、传真或邮递方式提供给你复印件。实验室得到抽样结果后,同样会提供给你一份样本的检测结果。
● In many cases, you will have to implement certain corrective actions, or submit additional documentation, before we can issue the certificate. Besides, we will submit you the final invoice, asking you to pay the remaining 50% of our quote, plus travelling costs for the inspector. 许多情况下:在给你颁发认证前,你必须执行整改措施,或提交附加文件,另外,我们会提交给你最后的发票――包括你要支付的剩余50%的尾款和检查员的差旅费。
● Once your operation complies with the standard, you get your NOP certificate. Certificates are valid until being suspended or revoked. 一旦你们的经营符合检验标准,你会获得NOP认证。在认证被缓期或被撤消之前,认证一直有效。
● Please be informed, that you can withdraw your application at any time. You will be liable for the costs of services provided up to the moment of withdrawal (§ 205.402 c). 你可以随时退出申请。但要通知我们,并支付退出申请的手续费(§ 205.402 c).
● The OMP has to be updated annually. At least one on-site inspection has to take place per year. The procedure for these follow-up inspections is the same as described above. Additional inspections may be performed, including unannounced visits. 有机物经营方案每年都更新,至少每年都有现场检查。

6. Eligibility, penalties (§205.662)
资格与处罚
Eligibility: Please be informed that any operator whose certification has been suspended by CERES may submit a request to the USDA-NOP Secretary for reinstatement of its certification. The request must be accompanied by evidence demonstrating correction of each noncompliance and corrective actions taken to comply with the National Organic Program. 资格:任何由CERES暂时取消其认证的经营者(业主)都可向USP-MOP秘书处提出申请以重新恢复对其的认证,但必需见此事通知我们。并且与此请求一起,必须开出已经整改了与NOP的不一致的地方以及遵从NOP标准所采取的整改措施的证明。
According to §205.662 a certified operation or a person responsibly connected with an operation whose certification has been revoked will be ineligible to receive certification for a period of 5 years following the date of such revocation, except, that, the NOP-Secretary may reduce or eliminate the period of ineligibility. 根据205.662,通过认证的公司或责任人与已被取消认证资格的公司(在撤消的五年时间里都没有认证的资格)互助合作。除非NOP秘书处减少或取消其不能接受认证资格的期限。
Penalties: In addition to suspension or revocation, any certified operation that: 处罚:除了接受暂时取消或撤消认证资格,任何认证公司要了解
(1) Knowingly sells or labels a product as organic, which is not in accordance with the NOP requirements, shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 per violation. 其没有按NOP要求销售或标志有机产品时,每违反一条要受到将近1000$民事惩罚

(2) Makes a false statement under the Act to the Secretary, a State organic program's governing State official, or a certifying agent shall be subject to the provisions of section 1001 of title 18, United States Code. ) 对于在秘书处的法规下造假,美国国家有机物管理办法的管理官员或认证代理将遵从美国法规的第1001章节的18条的规定对其进行处罚。

7. Emergency pest or disease treatment (§205.672)
突发瘟疫或疾病治疗
When a prohibited substance is applied to your certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and you otherwise meet the NOP requirements, the certification status of your operation shall not be affected as a result of the application of the prohibited substance: Provided, that:
根据联邦或各州的突发瘟疫或疾病治疗计划,你所在的认证公司使用了被禁止的物质是不符合NOP要求的,但你公司的认证不会因使用被禁止物而受到影响。假如:
(a) Any harvested crop or plant part to be harvested that has contact with a prohibited substance cannot be sold, labeled, or represented as organically produced; and任何接触到有害物物质的已收割谷物或植物不作为有机物产品出售,标注商品。
(b) Any livestock that are treated with a prohibited substance applied or product derived from such treated livestock cannot be sold, labeled, or represented as organically produced: Except, That: 任何接受禁止药物治疗的牲畜或用其制成的食品也不能作为有机物产品出售、标注商品。除非:
(1) Milk or milk products may be sold, labeled, or represented as organically produced beginning 12 months following the last date that the dairy animal was treated with the prohibited substance; and)在产乳类动物接受禁止药物最后时间的前12个月内,牛奶或乳产品可以作为有机物出售,标注商品。
(2) The offspring of gestating mammalian breeder stock treated with a prohibited substance may be considered organic: Provided, that, the breeder stock was not in the last third of gestation on the date that the breeder stock was treated with the prohibited substance. 假如用来配种牲畜不是在其怀胎的最后3个月内接受的禁止物,那么用来配种的哺乳动物的后代接受禁止物也仍然是有机动物。

8. Adverse Action Appeal Process (§ 205.680 + 205.681)
不利诸申请手续(过程)
● If you feel adversely affected by a decision of the National Organic Program's Program Manager you may appeal such decision to the AMS Administrator. 如认为NOP的程序管理员所作的裁决对你产生了不良影响,你可以向AMS管理员申诉。
● If you feel you are adversely affected by a noncompliance decision, certification denial, certificate suspension or revocation by CERES you may appeal such decision to the AMS Administrator. 如果CERES暂时撤消或取消认证资格对你产生了不良影响,而且你不服CERES决定,你也可向AMS 管理员提出申诉
● All written communications between parties involved in appeal proceedings must be sent to the recipient's place of business by a delivery service which provides dated return receipts. 双方就有关申诉中提出的诉讼的所有书面交流必须用挂号邮递方式寄给收信人
● All appeals shall be reviewed, heard, and decided by persons not involved with the decision being appealed. 所有的申诉应由涉及申诉决定以外的机构评估、听正和决定
● If the AMS administrator sustains your appeal his final decision “overrules” CERES’ previous decision. 如果AMS官员认可你的上诉,最后他会驳回CERES以前的裁决
● If the AMS administrator denies your appeal a formal administrative proceeding will be initiated to deny, suspend, or revoke the certification如果AMS行政官员否认你的上诉,他们进行新一轮的正式行政诉讼来否认、暂时取消或撤消你的认证资格
● Filing period: An appeal must be filed within the time period provided in the letter of notification or within 30 days from receipt of the notification, whichever occurs later. The appeal will be considered "filed" on the date received by the Administrator. A decision to deny, suspend, or revoke certification will become final and nonappealable unless the decision is appealed in a timely manner. 诉送期间:如果在规定的日期内写正式的书面通知或在30天内收到正式通知,不管后来发生什么,此申诉必须入档。在行政官员收到通知的那天,该上诉就可以被认为是“已存档的“上诉。如果不及时上诉,暂时消取或撤消的裁决会成定局,而且上诉无效。
● Appeals to the Administrator must be filed in writing and addressed to Administrator, USDA-AMS, Room 3071-S, P.O. Box 96456, Washington, DC 20090-6456.
All appeals must include a copy of the adverse decision and a statement of the appellant's reasons for believing that the decision was not proper or made in accordance with NOP regulations, policies, or procedures. 向行政官员的上诉必须书面通知并写上其地址USDA-AMS, Room 3071-S, P.O. Box 96456, Washington, DC 20090-6456。所有的上诉必须包含一行不得裁决的文件并陈述认为裁决不合适或等于NOP规则政策或程序不一致的上诉原因。

9. Temporary variances
In cases of natural disasters, damage caused by drought, wind, flood, excessive moisture, hail, tornado, earthquake, or other business interruption, or in case of practices conducted for research, the Administrator for the Agricultural Marketing Service of the USDA may establish exemptions from requirements concerning soil fertility management, crop rotation, seeds, crop protection, livestock origin, feed, health care and living conditions, organic handling requirements, facility pest management, prevention of commingling. CERES will inform the respective operators as soon as the Administrator notifies us. No temporary variances are possible for prohibited substances and methods, like e.g. synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, sewage sludge, ionizing radiation, GMOs. (§ 205.290)
(偶发事件)临时变数
如果因自然灾害如干旱、狂风、洪水、过度潮湿、冰雹、龙卷风、地震或其它业务上的中断造成的损失,(或者)以及进行研究时造成的损失,VSDA农业市场营销部的管理人员会根据土壤肥沃管理(谷物的轮种,种子种类作物保护,生育种类饲养。保键及生存条件,按有机物经营的要求,杀虫工具及农药)而免除对其所作的要求。行政人员一通知我们,CERES就会通知各经营者。针对临时发生的变数所作的特殊要求,对禁止物及其它方法如:合成杀虫剂、化肥、阴沟污水、离子辐射,转基因(GMOs是不起作用的。. (§ 205.290)

10. Confidentiality保密性
Please be informed, that CERES will handle confidentially all information obtained during the certification process. This is part of our certification contract.
To comply with § 205.504 (b) (5), CERES will publish the names of all NOP-certified operators on its homepage (www.ceres-cert.com). No further details will be published there. This website is also an important source of information for you, in case you want to make sure, that a CERES certificate submitted by one of your organic suppliers, is still valid.
Besides, CERES has to inform the USDA annually about the certified operations.

CERES在认证过程中处理所获的信息将不对外公开,这一点会通知你们。这是我们认证合同中的一部分。
依照§ 205.504 (b) (5),CERES将在首页公布,所有通过NOP认证的经营者名单(www.cn176.com)。具体细节不再详述。此网站也是你获取信息的重要资源。如果你想确认CERES提供给你某一经过其认证的有机物供应商,此网站也可以提供详细信息。
另外,CERES每年必须通知VSPA有关被认证公司的情况。
请注意:这只是NOP基本要求即(简介)引言,当然经营商还必须了解并满足各种标准的所有要求。

Please be aware that this is only a selection of essential requirements of NOP, meant as an introduction. The operator, of course, has to learn about and meet all requirements of the respective standard.

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