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日本农业标准JAS认证简介

日本农业标准JAS简介

看看日本的农业标准又是如何的?

Organic Product Certification According to the Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS) – An Introduction
简介:基于日本农业标准的有机产品认证(JAS)

Remark: CERES – CERtification of Environmental Standards GmbH – is an organic certifier accredited by DAP Germany for certification according to the European Regulation 2092/91 on organic farming. CERES is in process for accreditation for the Japanese organic market, according to JAS. While this process is going on,  allow our clients the access to the Japanese organic market.
备注:CRES是一个被DAP(依据关于有机农业的欧洲2092/91规则的组织)授权的有机认证者。CERER对日本有机产品市场进行授权的过程完全是
根据JAS,允许我们的客户进入日本有机物市场。

1. What is organic production according to JAS?
Organic production for the Japanese market, as part of the Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS) is regulated by
Notifications No. 59, 60, 806, 818, 819, 820, 821, 830, 513, 514, and 517 of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF), all from year 2000. On March 9, 2001, MAFF officially recognised the equivalence of EU regulation (EEC) 2092/91 with JAS standards. Thereafter, also USDA/NOP-Final was recognised as equivalent.
The accomplishment of JAS is supervised by the Dept. of Standards and Labelling of the MAFF.Currently, the standard is being revised. A new version will probably be put in force during 2005. The English version of JAS
was published at: http://www.maff.go.jp/soshiki/syokuhin/hinshitu/organic/eng_yuki_top.htm
基于JAS的有机产品是:
2000年由农林渔部委(MAFF)制定的59,60,806,818,819,820,821,513,514,519和517号通告规定了日本市场的有机产品作为日本农业
标准的一部分。
2001年3月9日正式决定用JAS标准代替欧盟2092/91规则。因此,美国农业部的NOP也可以用做替代。JAS标准是在MAFF标准与标识委员会指导下完成的。
当前这个标准正在修定中,新的版本可能在2005年实施,英语版的JAS已经被公布在
http://www.maff.go.jp/soshiki/syokuhin/hinshitu/organic/eng_yuki_top.htm


2. Differences with EU regulation and NOP
NOP与EU_Reg的不同
Some differences with EU regulation and NOP Final Rule are: NOP和EU_Reg最终的规定有以下几点不同:

● The above-mentioned notifications do not include animal products. Certification of meat, dairy products, eggs, honey, etc. is not yet possible according to JAS. 上面所提及的通告包括动物产品、肉类、生活用品、蛋类、蜂蜜等都不能依据JAS。
● Unlike EU regulation and NOP, Notification 59 allows the use of potassium chloride (KCl) from mined sources as fertilizer. 与NOP和EU_Reg不同,59号通告允许使用矿物质中的氯化钾作为肥料。
● Unlike EU regulation and NOP, Notification 59 does not allow the use of baking powder (potassium bicarbonate), alkaline extract of humic acids and lignosulfonates (mostly used as complex builder in micronutrient fertilizer). 与NOP和EU_Reg不同,59号通告不允许使用发酵粉(碳酸氢钠钾)以及腐殖酸与木素酸化盐的碱性提取液(主要用于肥料中微量营养素的混合液)
● Unlike EU regulation and NOP, Notification 818 explicitly requests good sanitary conditions for food processors and mentions that they must "maintain superior quality of the raw material and the products".与NOP和EU_Reg不同,818号通告明确要求食品加工者有一个好的卫生条件,并且提出必须保持原材料物产品的高质量。
● The main difference, however, is that JAS requires a formally established "Grading Procedure", meaning that, before labelling the product and selling it to another company or directly exporting it to Japan, the "Grading Manager" must verify, whether organic standards and internal instructions have been implemented accordingly. For each lot, this grading procedure must be documented on a checklist, which has to be filed during at least one year. 然而最主要的不同是JAS要求建立一个正式的“分级程序”这就意味着在产品贴上标签并卖到其它公司或直接出口到日本之前,“分级管理者”必须核查是否已经按照说要求的那样执行了有机标准和内部规定,对于每一个产品,都要将分级过程记录在检查表上,然后每年至少归档一次。
● Organic exports to Japan must be labelled with the so-called "JAS mark". This is a label that includes the name of the certifier and JAS. It must be used exactly in the form as it was approved by MAFF. 出口到日本的有机物必须贴上被称为“JAS标志”的商标。这个商标包含认证者和JAS的名字,并且必须按MAFF核准的形式,准确的使用它。
● Production managers and grading responsibles must attend a JAS seminar, organized by a approved certifier, not later than one year after having obtained the first JAS certification. 产品经理和分级负责人必须参加由被授权的认证者举办的JAS研讨会。这个研讨会在获得第一个JAS认证的一年内举行。


3. Who needs to be certified
Due to the agreement on equivalence (see above), inside the EU and inside the USA, only the final handler of the product needs to be JAS certified, if he is already EU or NOP certified. In other countries, all operators involved in the chain of roduction must be JAS certified. Farmer groups can be certified as such, if they have an internal control system (see Brief Info Group Certification). A processing or export company can take care of the internal control system and grading procedure of their group of suppliers.
Exporters who do not process, pack or label themselves, need not be JAS certified.
3.谁需要认证
 在美国或欧盟内,由于有等价协议(参见上面),所以对已获得EU或NOP认证的,只有该产品的最终经营者需要获得JAS认证。在其它国家,所有与生产链有关的操作员都需要JAS认证。如果农场主们有内部控制系统的话(参见集团认证简介),那么他们也可以照此获得认证。加工企业或出口企业可以处理内部控制系统和供应商们得分级程序。那些自己没有加工,包装和商标是不需要JAS认证的。


4.- Formal steps requested to obtain and maintain JAS certification获得和持有JAS认证的正式手续
(For general steps to organic certification, please see our "Brief information: steps to certification". Below, we only describe steps, which are specific to JAS.) 对于获得有机认证的一般手续,请参见”简介:认证手续”。下面,我们只讲述JAS认证中特有的手续。
● As a first step, the interested producer has to submit a JAS application form to CERES. we ask you to use the ceres-CERES application form (different forms for farms, producer groups, and for processors). 第一步:有关生产者向CERES提交JAS认证申请表。我们将要求使用ceres-Japan的申请表(对农业,制造业和加工业有不同的表格)。
● The company, farm or group must describe their Standard Operational Procedure (SOP) for the JAS grading system (see above N° 2; we worked out some examples for farms, farmer groups and processors). In case of units, which already have a valid EU or NOP certificate, the JAS certificate can be issued based on the EU or NOP inspection report, plus the description of the grading SOP (see above). The correct implementation of the grading system will be evaluated later, during the following routine annual inspection. 公司、农场、或集团必需对JAS的分级系统描述他们的标准操作流程(SOP)(参见N2我们已经举出了农场,生产商团体和加工商们的例子)。如果,有些单位已经获得了EU或NOP认证,那么,根据EU或NOP的检查报告另加SOP分级描述,可以为这些单位颁发JAS认证(参见上面)。然后,在第二年的“每年例行检查“中,再对分级系统的正确实施进行评估。
● In case of units without a valid organic certificate, an inspection has to take place, to verify the implementation of the organic management plan (OMP, see "Brief inf steps to certification) and the grading SOP, and fulfilment of JAS standards, before the certificate can be issued. 对于没有获得任何有机证明的单位,在其获得JAS认证之前,必需对它的有机管理计划和SOP分级程序的实施情况,以及JAS标准的履覆行情况进行核查。
● CERES submits the organic management plan, the grading SOP, and the inspection report to ceres-Japan, and, if necessary, clarifies open questions with ceres. CERES把有机管理报告,SOP分级结果和检查报告提交给ceres-Japan。如果有必要,就向ceres阐明所有问题。
● Once all requirements are fulfilled, ceres-Japan issues a JAS certificate. Together with the certificate, the unit receives the ceres-Japan "JAS mark" (see above) through CERES (once CERES obtains its own accreditation, it will be the CERES JAS mark). This seal must be placed on each bag, box or other unit to be exported to Japan, or sold to the next unit in the supply chain. 一旦覆行了所有要求,ceres-Japan将颁发JAS认证。与此同时,被认证单位也会通过CERES收到和认证一起的ceres的JAS标志。(一旦CERES获得授权,这个标志将是“CERES JAS标志”)。这标志必须被贴到出口到日本以及在供应链中销售到其它单位的每个袋子,箱子或其它东西上。
● All JAS certified operators have to inform the inspection body annually about the organic exports to Japan. The reference year is the Japanese economic year (April1 to March 31). The summarized information for the previous year must be submitted to the certifier until June 30. Recertification is not possible if this information is not submitted in time. JAS的所有操作员必须向检查机构通告每年向日本出中有机物的情况年。参考年份是日本贸易年(4月1号到来年的3月31号)上年的汇总信息必需在6月30日前提交。如果汇总信息没有及时提交,将不能进行重新认证


5. Details of the Grading System分级系统的详细描述(说明)
Grading means that PRIOR TO AUTHORIZING THE USE OF THE JAS SEAL the person in charge (the Grading manager) checks that for the respective lot the outlined SOPs were followed. The result of this verification has to be documented in a checklist which has to be filed during at least one year.
分级意味是优先授权使用JAS标志。负责人(分级签证者)检查下面SOP系统草案的各个事项。然后,将检查结果记录在检查列表中,并至少每年归档一次。
The unit applying for JAS certification has to name a grading manager. JAS establishes detailed criteria concerning qualification and/or experience of the grading manager. In groups or bigger companies, the grading manager can have his assistants. Like the responsibles for production, the grading manager has to attend a JAS seminar, not later than one year after first JAS certification.
使用JAS认证的单位必须任命分级管理员。JAS已经建立了关于分级管理员资格和经验的详细标准。在集团,或更大的公司,分级管理员可以有自己的助手。例如负责生产,分级管理员必须参加JAS研讨班,这个研讨班会在获得认证的一年内举行。

A typical grading system works as follows:
一个典型分级系统的工作流程如下所示:

*Not always, the seal (JAS mark) will be placed last. In many systems, the product arrives already with the seal. In this case, the grading manager verifies, whether the seal has the required characteristics. If the product does not comply, the grading manager makes sure that the seal is withdrawn, or the product is put in another container, without JAS mark.
JAS 标志不总是被放置在最后. 在许多系统中,产品分级完成前已经用了JAS标志. 在这情况下,分级管理员要检查产品是否有标志所要求的
特性.。如果产品不合要求, 分级管理员必须撤回印章,或把产品放在其他没有 JAS 标志的集装箱中。


General JAS Grading overview: JAS 分级程序全面概述:



Farms农场


Farmer groups小农户团体


Processors/ Manufacturers

加工者/制造业者


Minimum re­quirements for grading man­ager分级管理员的最低要求


3 years of experience in agriculture or re­lated research, or 2 years of highschool level courses in agronomy有从事农业或相关研究的3年经验。或两年制的农业学专业学历。


3 years of experience in agri­culture, or a university degree in agronomy plus 1 year of practical experience, or a highschool degree in agron­omy plus 2 years of experi­ence有从事农业的3年经验,或有农学大学学位加上 1 年的实际经验,或有农学专业大专学学历加2 年的实际经验。


3 years of experience in qual­ity management. In case of persons with a university de­gree, less practical experi­ence is required. 需3年的质量管理经验。 假如有大学学位,可以适当的降低实际经验的年限。


Who can be grading man­ager分级管理员的人选

An employee, but also the farmer himself, or the farm administrator既是职员,同时也是农民, 或农场管理人

Usually, the persons responsi­ble for the internal control system通常,能够对于内部控制系统负责的人

Must be independent from the production and sales depart­ments必须独立于生产部门和营销部门

Typical refer­ence docu­ments for grad­ing (depending on the kind of production and process) 分级过程的典型文档(依靠各种生产和加工)

· Plot history

· Invoices for seeds, fertilizers and pest control products

· Field diaries

· Harvest diaries

· Packing diaries

· etc. 历史情况

· 种子,肥料和控制有害物产品的发票

· 农田日志

· 收割日志

· 包装日志

· 其他

· Approved farmers list

· Internal inspection reports

· Processing and packing dia­ries

· etc. 被核查的农民列表

· 内部检验报告

· 加工和包装日志

其他.

· Reception documents for raw material

· Copies of certificates of raw material suppliers

· Storage books

· Processing protocols

· Cleaning protocols

· etc. 为原料的接收文件

· 原料供应者的证书副本

· 储藏日志

· 加工草案

· 清洁草案

· 其他

6. Documents required for JAS certification JAS 认证所需的文件
ADDITIONAL records required for JAS certification, besides those, which are necessary according to EU regulation or NOP: 除了
必需依照欧盟规则或 NOP记录之外,JAS 认证所需的附加记录:
● Application for JAS certification JAS 认证的申请
● SOPs for JAS grading为 JAS 分级的SOPs
● Documents showing that these SOPs are being implemented for each lot sold with JAS mark可以显示已经销售的每项贴有JAS
标志的产品执行SOPs情况的文档。
● Records of products sold with JAS mark帖有JAS 标志被销售的产品记录
● A list of the main tools/machinery/equipment used for organic production (including farming and processing tools) 用
来进行有机生产的主要工具/器械/ 仪器的目录(包括耕作和加工工具)
● In case of farms: plot histories for all plots, for at least 3 years, including details on all fertilizers,
amendments and plant protection products used during this time (in case the organic management plan does not include these details) 至少要有农场3 年内所有情况的历史记录,包括肥料,改善和植物保护产品在这期间被用的所有细节 (以防有机管理计划不包括这些细节)
● A drawing of all warehouses and other buildings belonging to the unit.该单位所有仓库和其他的建筑物的绘图
● Transport records. 运输记录


7. Labelling requirements
All products sold as "JAS organic", must carry the JAS mark. Together with the certificate, CERES will provide its clients an electronic version of the JAS-ceres seal. If the products are shipped to Japan in bags, the JAS seal must be on each bag or a JAS seal tag must be attached to each bag. If the product is shipped in bulk containers, the JAS seal must appear on the Invoice or Bill of Lading. It is recommended that the seal appears both on the bulk products and the shipping documents. If the official shipping document cannot be altered, a page bearing the JAS seal can be attached. The JAS certified repacker in Japan will repackage the product and put the JAS seal on the new packaging.
商标要求:
所有被当做 " JAS 有机品"卖的产品,一定携带 JAS 标志。 连同证书一起,CERES将会提供它的客户一个电子版本JAS-ceres 标志. 如果产品用袋子被装船运送到日本, 每个袋子必须有JAS 印章(标志)或每个袋子附上一个 JAS 印章标签. 如果产品用大量的集装箱装船运送,装载发票或装载清单上一定要有JAS 印章(标志)。建议把印章(标志)分别付在散货和货运单上. 如果正式的船载文件不能更改,可把带有JAS印章(标志)的纸页附在上边。JAS授权的包装工将会对产品重新包装并把 JAS 印章(标志)印在新的包装上。

Details of the seal: The interlocking circles of the JAS mark must be at least 5 mm high (not including the text underneath the circles). The text underneath the circles must say the name of the certifier (ceres for the moment). The form and proportions of the JAS seal may not be altered. Any colour is permitted. The position of the JAS mark is not regulated by MAFF/ JAS. You may use the JAS seal in advertising material.
印章(标志)的细节:
JAS 标志的连锁圆至少要有5 毫米高度 ( 不包括圆周下面的文字). 在圆周下面的文本必须有认证者的名字 ( 在这里是ceres), 形状和 JAS 印章的比例不能被改变.。但允许改变颜色。MAFF/JAS 没有规定JAS 标志的位置。 你也可以在广告材料中使用 JAS 印章(标志)。

Further information on the label: The label must include information on the kind of product, the organic condition, quantities, the operator number assigned on the JAS certificate, the company or farm name, a lot number and the country of origin.
标志上的其他信息:
标签必须包括关于产品类型的信息、有机物情况、数量、JAS 认证的操作员编号、公司或农场名字、产品批号和原产地.

8. Issue of Transaction Certificates
Unlike NOP, JAS requires transaction certificates (TCs) to be issued by certification bodies, for all organic exports from other countries to Japan. Unlike the situation in the EU, these TCs are usually not requested by customs authorities, but during the JAS inspection, the certification body has to check, whether TCs were requested and issued for all exports. Omitting this procedure, can put the JAS certification at risk.
贸易证书的问题
与 NOP不同 ,JAS 需要认证机构对从其他国家到日本的所有有机出口品颁发贸易证书 (TCs)。 与欧盟的情况不同,海关当局通常并不要求有 TCs,但在 JAS 检验期间,认证机构必须检查所有的出口品是否已经申请并获得了TCs.。省略这个程序,可能增加JAS 认证的风险。
Related documents: 相关文件:

Farms农场

Groups团体

Processors / Exporters

加工商 /出口商

JAS application JAS 申请

3.1.9

3.1.10

3.1.11

JAS grading procedures, including an example of a grading checklist JAS分级程序,包括分级检查表的例子

3.2.11.1

3.2.11.2

3.2.11.3

Report on sales of JAS-labelled products贴有JAS标志产品的销售报告

3.1.12

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